• Container orchestration system: automates container deployment, scaling, networking, storage, and scheduling.
  • node: A worker machine in the Kubernetes cluster, responsible for actually running pods
  • pod: layer of abstraction containing one or more container runtimes like Docker or rkt. Single-container pods are preferred.
  • If a machine within the cluster dies, affected container will be migrated to another machine.
  • kubectl: A command-line utility with commands to control the Kubernetes cluster

  • Commands:
      $ docker build -t <container name> . #To build the container
      $ kubectl <command> <resource> <options> #General command format
      $ kubectl get pods <name of resource> #Retrieve information about a pod
      $ kubectl get all #Summary of each resource in cluster
      $ kubectl describe all #Provides detailed information
      $ kubectl apply -f <file name>.yml #To create, delete, or replace state of Kubernetes cluster
      $ kubectl delete -f <file name>.yml #To delete the object declared by the YAML file 
  • Kubernetes object Kind: Pod, ConfigMap, Deployment, Service

Kubernetes Deployment

  • Deployment manages, replicates to handle increased load, and updates, a set of pods through a single parent object
  • Nests a pod specification (deployment.spec.template) inside the deployment’s configuration
  • A representative Kubernetes Deployment file is shown below.
      # deployment.yml
      apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1 # Kubernetes API version it’s from
      kind: Deployment # Type of object
      metadata: # Descriptive information of object
      name: tfsimagenet
      annotations: # Won’t be indexed or queried on
          contact: Adaickalavan <adaickalavan@email.com> 
      spec: # Desired state of object
      replicas: 2 # How many copies of each pod do we want?
      strategy: # How do we want to update the pods?
          type: RollingUpdate # Updates pods one at a time
          maxSurge: 1 # Maximum number of pods above desired replicas
      selector: # Which pods are managed by this deployment?
          matchLabels: # This matches against the labels we set on the pod
          app: tfsimagenet
          name: tfsimagenet
          labels: # Used in deployment and service selector  
              app: tfsimagenet
              - name: tfsimagenet
              image: tfsimagenet
              imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
                  - name: rest
                  containerPort: 8501
  • Horizontal Pod Autoscaler is a new resource in modern versions of Kubernetes that manages the number of replicas in your deployment automatically, based on resource utilization(e.g., memory, CPU, custom metrics).


Kubernetes Service

  • Services routes network requests to appropriate pods based on matching labels
  • A representative Kubernetes Service file is shown below.
      # service.yml
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      name: tfsimagenet-service
      type: NodePort
          app: tfsimagenet
      ports: # Three types of ports for a service 
          # nodePort - static  port on each node which is accessible from outside the cluster 
          # port - port exposed internally in the cluster 
          # targetPort - the container port to send requests to
          - nodeport: 30163
          port: 8080
          targetPort: 8501
  • The Kubernetes Service in the above file is illustrated pictorially below.


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